I designed an intuitive NFT minting process, streamlining NFT creation for Web3 newcomers, fostering accessibility and user engagement.


Minting NFTs Made Easy for Web3 Novices is one of the largest NFT marketplaces hosted on the Cardano blockchain, launched in July 2021. Still in its development stage, was missing a native minting feature on its platform.

In this project, I researched and designed a thorough, new minting feature for that would allow creators to natively mint and list their NFTs for sale.

The Challenge

How might we add an intuitive minting feature that allows new NFT creators to mint marketable NFTs?

The Solution

I measured success by reviewing task completion rate. After implementation, I would measure change in retention rate to see how creators respond to a feature-rich marketplace.


UX Researcher
Product Designer


4 months [Feb 2022 - Jun 2022]


Information Architecture
Heuristic Evaluation
Story Map
User Interview
User Flow Analysis
Usability Testing


"Minting" for Dummies

Imagine you have a special drawing or a cool song on your computer. Now, think of "minting" as turning that drawing or song into a one-of-a-kind digital certificate.

This certificate shows that you own the original, just like having a unique signature on a piece of art.

This process happens on the internet using special technology called blockchain, making sure everyone knows it's yours and real. So, when people talk about "minting" in Web3, they mean making something digital special and uniquely yours!


Investigating 148 Comments on NFT Minting

So, let me take you back to 2022—NFTs were all the rage! From Gary Vaynerchuk's VeeFriends launch to the whole crypto, Web3, and NFT.NYC buzz, it was a wild ride.

Fast forward to now, almost the end of 2023, and guess what? AI has most definitely taken the reins for the most captivating technology of the next decade. But hey that’s been the crazy narrative shift the past few years now anyways.

In the middle of this NFT adventure, I stumbled upon a big issue in one marketplace. I went through 148 comments on different online platforms to get the scoop on what people were struggling with and how the whole process of creating NFTs worked.

“As a creator, I’m finding it quite hard to understand how to set up on NiftyGateway... I mean how to connect a wallet to pay for minting and gas?”

Christian Hogue

YouTube Comment

“Gas fees are the biggest barrier between buyer and seller in NFTs.”

Luke Kemeny


“I do believe creating, minting, selling, buying on $ETH is a problem. Tried to buy two NFTs from @opensea, both failed, paid a lot in gas, like A LOT!”



“So when launches their MINT function, how much will it cost to mint a NFT 🙂? Thanks!”


Discord Chat

Here's what I found out:


Financial Safety Concerns

Folks who are new to NFTs are really worried about keeping their money and assets safe.


No Native Minting on

A good platform called is missing a key feature—it doesn't let you easily create and list your stuff. Bummer, right?

This little investigation not only taught me what's bugging users on NFT platforms but also showed me that might be missing out on some action.

And hey, this is just the start of the story—I'm sure there's a lot more NFT drama waiting to unfold!

Interviewing Aspiring NFT Artists

I chatted with some artists eager to dip their toes into the NFT world, aiming to figure out what's on the minds of first-time NFT creators when they're picking a blockchain and marketplace for their masterpieces.

Here's the lowdown from my convos:

1. Getting started with NFTs is a real puzzle.

MD said it best:

“Why can’t NFTs just be as simple as posting on Instagram?” — MD

2. NFT ventures need a bunch of groundwork.

Creators are stuck dealing with complicated terms and those pricey gas fees — it’s a real obstacle course out there.

3. Marketing in a crowded space is super tough.

Aspiring creators, like MO, want to stand out but find it hard when everyone's doing the same old thing — selling auto-generated avatar JPEGs.

“I don’t want to be stuck doing the same thing like that, just because it’s making me money... I want to keep doing something more and different than what other people are doing.” — MO
“Different attributes and variations make (NFTs) more desirable for all people to buy.” — MD


Make Minting NFTs Breezy and Easy

Picture this: NFT creators are on the lookout for a marketplace that's not just safe and reliable, but also makes minting, listing, and trading their NFTs a breeze.

So to set the stage for this UX project, I boiled down the mission into a simple question:


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How can we make minting marketable NFTs a no-brainer for new creators on

This project will be about adding a super-easy minting feature that opens the doors for new creators to unleash their art and make a splash in the NFT scene.

And I need to help make the go-to place for hassle-free NFT creation!


Learning from Reputable Products

In creating this new minting feature, I conducted an analysis of competitor solutions to identify the key steps & flows that successful minting platforms already have.

Analyzing How Competitors Do It

I took a close look at how big players like OpenSea, Rarible, and Cardahub handle their minting processes.

The idea was to figure out what steps they all share for a successful NFT mint and what makes a user-friendly structure.

After going through this process, I got a good grip on the mix of mandatory and optional steps needed for a smooth minting experience.

It really gave me a confidence boost in understanding what makes minting work seamlessly.

Heuristic Evaluation

Recognizing areas for improvement in competitor solutions, I specifically delved into Cardahub's UX through a heuristic evaluation for its minting process.

Some key findings were:

  • Improved prompting and disclaimers are needed
  • Clarity the UX writing
  • A more noticeable success modal is required

These insights on strengths and weaknesses of competitor solutions guided my path forward, as I created a minting feature for, from scratch.

Story Map

I laid out a story map to better visualize the user journey and experience, beyond just minting.

Focusing on the journey of a newbie NFT artist, I mapped out steps like setting up a crypto wallet and listing an NFT for sale.

By defining goals and user tasks, I gained the confidence to move from information architecture to sketching and creating low-fidelity wireframes. I was ready for the next steps!


Initial Explorations

In the initial sketch, I took inspiration from OpenSea, Rarible, and Cardahub for a single-page scrollable minting form. However, I soon realized it could overload our first-time NFT creators.

To keep things simple, I restructured the process into a step-by-step wizard flow, as shown in the exploration above.

At each stage, I incorporated a "Preview NFT" card, allowing users to visualize their final NFT listing continuously.

The last screen in the flow also serves as a preview NFT screen, showcasing the final listing once again. This ensures a straightforward and visually engaging minting experience.

Glaring Issues with the Sketches

After sketching out the ideas, I noticed a few things that needed fixing:

  • Create more breathing room
  • Add a final summary screen of all input fields answers
  • Let users preview the published NFT
  • Optimize for mobile

To tackle these, I came up with a final sketch that not only solved these problems but also gave a clear plan for the next step — creating a low-fidelity version of the design.

Defining Form Fields: Easy as 123

To figure out the order of our form fields, I did a little card sorting. I split them into categories (blue cards) and matched them with the right inputs (yellow cards).

And so the steps in this wizard flow look like this:

  1. Get Started: Upload File
  2. Essentials: Fill in Name, Description, and Collection
  3. Settings: Set Royalties, Properties/Metadata, and Supply Number of NFTs
  4. Make it Marketable: Add Unlockable Content and External Links to spice things up.
  5. Pricing: Choices between Fixed Price, Open for Bids, and Timed Auction

With this exercise, I locked in the plan for my NFT minting feature. Time to bring it to life with some wireframes and a prototype!


Lo-fi Wireframes & Prototyping

In this video, I walkthrough the low-fidelity prototype.

View the low-fidelity prototype


4 of 5 Users Succeed, But with Experience Issues

Testing this first exploration, I found 3 of 5 users completed tasks at the "Success with Major Issue" level. It was clear that my design required significant changes to achieve better success levels.

And so I went in-depth into data from the usability tests to extract insights, like the following:



Web3 jargon: Simpler UX writing is essential

80% of participants had difficulty understanding various form fields and their meaning. Terms related to NFT metadata such as "mint", "attributes", "external link", "collection", "unlockable content", and "gas fees", were all foreign to users.


Forgiveness in Web3 UX: Mistakes happen

100% of participants were shocked to hear their minted NFT was permanent and uneditable after finishing the test.

They were left wishing for clarity and warning before they learned the hard way of spending gas fees and regretting any mistakes.


Simplifying wallets: Key to better Web3 UX

100% of participants felt distrustful on what to do when trying to sign and confirm the NFT mint. They found the external wallet notification to have problematic text hierarchy and confusing UI.


Data visibility: Modern creators value analytics

60% of participants reacted positively seeing "View" and "Favorites" metrics for NFT landing pages.

They wondered what other analytics data are available, that will help them track performance, measure demand, and display success for their NFT products.


Comprehending the new currency: Familiarity matters

40% of participants felt confused with selling price with currency abbreviation and value in ADA (Cardano). They wished to see an equivalent US Dollar amount next to the ADA amount to comprehend the price value to assign to the NFT.

A New & Improved User Flow

Upon reviewing the usability test insights, I needed an improved user flow that would address insight #2 (error prevention issues) and insight #3 (simplifying wallet issue).

In this revised user flow, I introduced new confirmation pop-ups and integrated a different blockchain wallet in Nami, that is compatible with

1. Adding new confirmation pop-ups

Insight #2 informed me that at the end of each test, 100% of participants were shocked to hear their minted NFT was permanent and uneditable.

To combat this, I created a new user flow in which I added two confirmation pop-ups to alert users that minting NFTs is permanent. I hope this point becomes top-of-mind for users when completing their metadata fields.

2. Integrating the Nami wallet, instead of MetaMask

I originally made the error of integrating an incompatible wallet (MetaMask) with the real CNFT platform. Regardless, insight #3 informed me that 100% of participants ran into issues with the MetaMask wallet.

Yet, solving its UX will be an out-of-scope task for future explorations, but is a very significant problem that I uncovered in this case study.


Hi-fidelity Design

The following are the solutions I implemented into the high-fidelity prototype, after combining feedback from early findings and most recent usability tests.


Repeated confirmations

Minting is a permanent action, and once completed, NFTs cannot be edited after. As new users begin minting and before they confirm the transaction, users will be alerted about its finality.

This should increase their attentiveness and prevent errors, allowing for a more forgiving user experience.


Informative help text

When moving through the NFT minting process, users need to quickly understand the context and vocabulary of form fields, without having to do much research off-screen.

I added informative tooltips to jargon-heavy form fields, to help new users discern them better and speed up their minting flow.


"Save for Later" option

60% of users felt they’d take a minute and research a little bit during this minting flow, but didn’t want to lose their progress when leaving. It’s very important for users to have a “Save for Later” option, saving their progress for them to return when ready.


Numbering the wizard steps

To replace the previous 3-dot progress indicator, I added a numbered progress bar atop the wizard forms. This is aimed to help users understand what step they’re on, and give them context to move back and forth in the wizard flow.


Revamped "Create a Project" form

Along with’s updated naming conventions, their marketplace now allows users to create projects housing multiple NFTs. Currently this lives on its own “New Project” page, and so I implemented this form as a pop-up modal once users click “Create Project” during the minting process.

High-fidelity Prototype

In this video, I walkthrough the high-fidelity prototype.

View the high-fidelity prototype


Web3 UX Today is Problematic

This project taught me the importance of giving users guidance when using a very unfamiliar product. Keeping usability at the forefront is essential to increasing user confidence in the product solving their problems and serving their needs.

In addition, no matter how new and complicated the technology is (in this case blockchain and NFTs), the user experience must not suffer.

I’ve identified this as a common theme in Web3 UX, and believe that striking a right balance is crucial as we work towards greater adoption of Web3 products.

Measuring Success

Due to time constraints, I was unable to test and validate the high-fidelity prototype. Still, I feel confident in the final design as decisions were based off insights gained from testing the low-fidelity prototype.

Through further testing, we can measure success by reviewing task completion rate to see how well the final prototype helps user accomplish each step in the minting process.

And once this minting feature is implemented, we’d measure change in retention rate and long-term user growth, to see how creators are responding to an improved, full capability marketplace.

Lessons Learned

🫡 Recruit experienced CNFT creators

If I had more time to find and recruit current CNFT creators, I would have obtained more information on users' needs for an all-encompassing NFT creator solution.

This information could’ve helped me improve the experience for seasoned users, whereas my focus was on brand new users.

👛 Preventing the “Wallet Debacle”

I wish I had paid more attention to the fact that CNFT uses the Nami wallet instead of trying to plug in the MetaMask wallet.

I would've gained more focused insights during the original usability test, instead of wasting time integrating a crypto wallet that isn't compatible with the platform in real-life.

Next Steps: Items for Future Exploration

Minting at scale for larger NFT projects

40% of users in my usability test wondered if multiple NFTs can be minted using’s proposed minting feature.

Many online users also mentioned desire to build large collections of NFTs (upwards of 10,000 count) and how that would work on a marketplace site like

For’s new minting feature, we can explore minting multiple NFTs as part of a large collection (e.g. 10,000 NFTs) and allow creators to quickly scale their NFT projects.

Empowering creator analytics

Insight #4 informed me that 60% of participants reacted positively seeing "Views" and "Favorites" metrics for NFT landing pages. They also wondered about what other creator analytics were available on the platform.

What if and other NFT marketplaces offered deeper data and analytics for creators to better optimize their NFT projects?

No-code smart contract capabilities

One interview participant made an observation that more advanced smart contract rules can only be implemented with a developers help.

Enabling no-code smart contract builders for blockchain projects is another HUGE problem to solve in Web3. Doing so will empower creators with the tools to achieve more with their NFT ventures.

© 2024 Gurjinder Singh. All right reserved.